Tarek Chaaban

Tarek Chaaban, M.Sc's official blog. It contains current web project portfolio, posts regarding his Canadian army experience, news, sports articles, and web tutorials on programming and using social networking technologies.

What comes after the Terabyte?

I’ve a question: what comes after the Terabyte?

8 bits = 1 Byte

What comes after the Byte ?
1024 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte

What comes after the kilobyte ?
1024 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte

What comes after the Megabyte ?
1024 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte

What comes after the Gigabytes ?
1024 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte

What comes after the Terabytes?
1024 Terabytes = 1 Petabyte

What comes after the Petabytes ?
1024 Petabytes = 1 Exabyte

What comes after the Exabyte ?
1024 Exabyte = 1 zettabyte

What comes after the zettabyte ?
1024 zettabyte = 1 Yottabyte


  1. @Asareon: Sorry, but that myth has been debunked several times. What Ben said is right. Using that much of your brain at once would be akin to having the world’s largest seizure.

  2. In response to Asareon comment, we use almost all of our brain everyday. :P

  3. [quote]# jsanford91 on November 12, 2007

    first comes a byte (8 bits) then kilobyte (1024 bytes) then megabyte (1024 kilobytes) then gigabyte (1024 megabytes) then terabytes (1000 gigabytes) then petabytes (1000 terabytes) then exabytes (1000 petabytes) then zettabytes (1000 exabytes) finaly yottabytes (1000 zettabytes)[/quote]
    Umm… “First comes a byte (8bits)”!?
    wouldn’t it make more sense to say that first comes a BIT?
    when even that is wrong
    first comes a nibble, 8 of them makes a bit.

  4. A University Degree, don’t mean a whole lot, other than you know how to pass exams and shit.

  5. Call me a NERD but i just calculated it and there is 10141204801825835211973625643008 bits in 1 Yottabyte

  6. · 1024 Yottabytes = 1 Brontobyte
    · 1024 Brontobytes = 1 Geopbyte
    I got this from wiki I’m not sure if it’s correct.

  7. A nibble (or nybble) is not one eighth of a bit. It’s four bits – half a byte.

    By definition, there isn’t anything smaller than a bit in binary.

    (There is something smaller than a bit in terms of the hardware design, as each bit of storage requires multiple transistors on the chip, but that’s irrelevant).

  8. you got it wrong

    1 = a bit
    4 bits = 1111 = nibble (or sometimes refered to as a nyble)
    8 bits = 11111111 = byte
    16 bits = 11111111 11111111 = word
    32 bits = 11111111111111111111111111111111 = double word
    64 bits = quad word

  9. I have 99999999999 yotta bytes ya hores

  10. I own a computer with a terabyte.

  11. How many nibbles to a bite depends on the size of the nibble; if they are small nibbles then it will take loads of them to make one bite, eat a biscuit maybe?

  12. l0l!1 all u noobs…Einstein never said anything about only using 8% of our brains, and the old ‘we only use 10% of our brains’ is horse sh!t. We use 100% of our brains; of course, not all at the same time, there are different parts that take care of different matters.

    After yottabytes I’m sure we’d get to something like mega-yottabytes (megabyte is 1024 bytes, so mega-yottabytes would be 1024 x 1 yottabyte, although with commercialization the industry has reduced a byte from 1024 to 1000, for simplicity sake; I ordered a 300 GB drive (advertising it as bigger than it actually was, because it’s capacity was only 282 real 1024 megabytes) and we’d repeat the sequence over, the same way you’d pronounce 129,000, you say ‘one hundred twenty nine thousand’ or 672,123,234,345,456 is ’6 hundred seventy two TRILLION, one hundred twenty three BILLION, two hundred thirty four MILLION, 3 hundred forty five THOUSAND, four hundred fifty six.

    Damn ur all n00bs!

  13. Ha ha, I knew up to Exabyte. Didn’t know about the Yottabyte. I work for a company that resells used data storage to large corporations. We see it all. Interestingly enough, Photobucket has around only 2 petabytes of storage! You don’t even want to know how much Dreamworks has. Their data center is AMAZING

    1 TB is nothing these days lol. The largest shelves we carry currently are 14 drives with 750gb drives – thats around 10.5 TB. Typically about 8 shelves can be connected to one head unit (think of it like a brain). The largest units we stock can support around 500 TB per ‘system’!

  14. Call me a nerd, but a gigabyte is 1000 bytes. A gibabyte is 1024.

  15. hey Phil, I think I speak for all of us when I say piss off. saying “l0l!1″ (how inspired) right before you insult us does not make it better. And while I am sure that someone who has such a mastery of prose and the english language, (who else could have come up with the cunning use of “u” instead of “you”) would normally take the time to read all the comments before giving us grief, I am sure you are too busy working on your PH.D so I will forgive you for failing to notice that me and a few other people had already commented on the fact that the brain use myth was just that a myth. However since you are clearly to intelligent to be rubbing elbows with all us plebs for more than a few minutes I understand how you feel the need to generalize all of us into the category of “n00bs”. I have to go now because you see by pointing out that “ur all n00bs” has reminded me that by commenting on the same page as all these “n00bs” has disgraced my family name, so I guess it’s time to go commit sepuku, I can assure you that all of us have been shamed by someone of your stature reminding us of our collective failure, and proper measures will be taken to reclaim our familial honor.

  16. As of right now there are only .0998 yottabytes of information stored on all computers worldwide…. seriously…..

    Why would you even need a yottabyte?

  17. ok people, bit (short of Binary Digit) is as small as it goes and is defined as a pulse in digital signal and is measures as either on or off (1 for on, 0 for off) now that this little lesson is over, lets get to the list i’m making.
    byte-8 bits
    kilobyte- 1,024 bits (2^10)
    megabyte- 1,048,576 bits (2^20)
    gigabyte- 1,073,741,824 bits (2^30)
    terabyte- 1,099,511,627,776 bits (2^40)
    petabyte- 1,125,899,906,842,624 bits (2^50)
    exabyte- 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bits (2^60)
    zettabyte- 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 bits (2^70)
    yottabyte- 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 bits (2^80)

    and i’m done here…if you noticed the pattern, you can figure out how many bits will be in whatever the hell is after a yottabyte
    have fun!

  18. oh i gave the binary calculations…if you want the decimal, here’s how ya do it

    kilo is 10^3
    mega 10^6
    giga 10^9
    tera 10^12
    peta 10^15
    exa 10^18
    zetta 10^21
    yotta 10^24

  19. Here’s where I get really dorky.
    1 Byte = Smallest amount of memory that a machine can directly address. This is most often 8 bits, but in some cases, it can be 4 to 10 bits.

    1 Kilobyte = Either 1000 Bytes or 1024 Bytes. There is no standard definition for the size of a Kilobyte. When you are purchasing a hard disk, you can expect that the manufacturer measured the size using factors of 1000. When you are purchasing RAM, you can expect that the manufacturer is using factors of 1024 (as it needs to be addressed in 1024 factors).

    To avoid this confusion there’s another measuring system for memory. It sounds a little dumb, but it helps alleviate the confusion.

    1 Kilobyte SOMETIMES = 1024 bytes, SOMETIMES = 1000 bytes
    1 Kibibyte (kilo binary byte) ALWAYS = 1024 bytes
    1 Mebibyte (mega binary byte) ALWAYS = 1024 bytes

  20. The human brain can hold (given 100% potential) 3.55 yB, and could (given optimal environmental conditions) operate at approx. 2 exHz — so having a computer won’t take that long to catch up.

  21. You would think that the moment that you turned on a computer with a yHz proccessor would vaporize everything in like a 2 mile radius due to the frequency. We are talking gamma rays times a bagillion.

  22. Keven:

    Isn’t that what they said about the twin Quad Core Xeons in my computer? :)

  23. Bryan:

    Haha, I suppose they did. However, I am talking your quad core processor times many more than the 20 mHz they had when they said that about your computer. I was totally exaggerating of course, but there has got to be a processor that could do that. Maybe 999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999yHz?
    I don’t know. Haha. This is such a ridiculous conversation but entertaining at the same time.

  24. I think Intel is working on an 80 Core CPU where each core is running at something like 20GHz.

    …..Something to that effect.

  25. U guys r all stupid!

    After a yottabyte is a brontobyte then a geopbyte! Learn sumthing.

  26. I wish I had a Geopbyte computer with a brontobyte of RAM and YHz, also a like super Ultra-mega graphics card. That would be pimp.

  27. On the subject of technology advancing at a extremely fast rate… …I would like to point out that Eric on June 1, 2007 (the second comment at the top of this “conversation”) commented that a 1 GB of ram back then was $120 in American dollars… …and last month I purchased a Terabyte HDD for $75. :) …and 2 GB of DDR 2 Ram for $25. My computer still seems too slow. :P

  28. Phil E. Drifter,
    mega-yottabytes=1024 x 1 yottabyte? ^.o
    Did you know what does ‘k, M, G, T’ and all the rest means?
    1k is a thousand, 1M is a million, 1G is a billion, 1T is a trillion and so on.
    So 1024 x 1 yottabyte would be a kiloyottabyte if anyone would be as unimaginative as you and call it that.
    I wonder what would that make you if I as a n00b knew something so basic which you did not.
    A Yottan00b probably. Like n00b to the power of 80.

  29. I reckon you all need some Getalifeobytes.

  30. in answer to #30 – there is a lot more than a Yottabyte of data in the world. in fact look up a company called Yotta Yotta. they get their name from the size of the data warehouse they run.

  31. If we are going on about filling these magnitudes of storage space maybe in the future if and when they develope the Transporter off Star Trek, imagine just how much data storage is required to map a human body down the the atoms and electrons plus all the spins speeds etc of each piece of data. Then a 1 yottabyte drive may seem small.

  32. Microsoft won’t recognize that much memory or a hard disk that large so you’re screwed.

  33. You noobs and your YHz computers. My commodore 64 will kick its …

  34. To the guy that came up with the idea of “getalifeobytes”. If you think this is a boring discussion, why did you search for it in the first place?

  35. yep, lol if u leave ur hdd in chernobyl it will transform into a one with 1024 yottabytes, xD

  36. If that were possible, I’d've done that by now. And I’m fairly sure Bill Gates and his Evil Microsoft Empire have got a plan for several hundred YHz processors…

  37. I want a 2YB USB drive instead of my crappy 2GB…

  38. LoL who comes up with this stuff, whats after yottabyte tacobyte whatever, interesting tho

  39. I just wondering how fast computer will be if we start use from petabyte to yotabyte… i believe some day in the future :)

  40. Wow, you could have 302 sextillion, 231 quintillion, 454 quadrillion, 903 trillion, 657 billion, 293 million, 676 thousand,544 hundred average size (4mb) songs on 1 yottabyte!

    LOL tacobyte!!!

  41. Just imagine this even though are brains “don’t remember things” in our conscience, our SUB-conscience remebers everybit of movement,colors,sounds, etc. in our life! imagine how many overall of data are brains can store, more beyond a yottabyte!…

    in the future maybe we can have even more than a yottabyte thanks to nano-technology. Over the decades the data depends on how small each chip was. Maybe in the future we have technology that can store infinite memmory on a chip that is a hundreds of atoms wide!

    Just remember that a creator of something has to be smarter than its invention, if it was more retarded than it is probably the invention. So we are more advance than some dumb computer.

    take care of your brain, peace out, it was KONVICT Age.12 seeya!

  42. You do know after a certain time it’ll be physically impossible to have all the memory with the stuff we’re using now.. it’ll b beyond light and wires and other stuff like that.. mayb gases.. lol jk. mayb our computers will just have atoms or something that holds all our memory..

  43. does anyone know how many bits in a 1 Yottabyte? bit of hard triva but please email me cause i’m gonna spend a long time trying :(

  44. The clock rate of a CPU is normally determined by the frequency of an oscillator crystal. The first commercial PC, the Altair 8800 (by MITS), used an Intel 8080 CPU with a clock rate of 2 MHz (2 million cycles/second). The original IBM PC (c. 1981) had a clock rate of 4.77 MHz (4,772,727 cycles/second). In 1995, Intel’s Pentium chip ran at 100 MHz (100 million cycles/second), and in 2002, an Intel Pentium 4 model was introduced as the first CPU with a clock rate of 3 GHz (three billion cycles/second corresponding to ~3.3 10-10seconds per cycle).

    With any particular CPU, replacing the crystal with another crystal that oscillates half the frequency (“underclocking”) will generally make the CPU run at half the performance. It will also make the CPU produce roughly half as much waste heat…
    jus for knowledge

  45. A YB processor….. Sounds good but not viable in it’s own right. “They” have pretty much got to the limits of processor speeds now, hence why AMD and Intel have started putting 2, 3 or even 4 cores into 1 processor. Granted in 50 years you may be able to buy a single box/unit that is capable of overall speeds of a Yottabyte, but chances are it will be made up of lots of smaller cores working together.

    To throw another spanner into the works, you then have to look at all the other components that make up a computer. The overall system will only run as fast as the slowest component. So if you have a YB processor, but only 8GB of RAM, your not even going to use a quater of the processor, so it is worth it when you consider the expense.

    The other thing you have to consider is HDD seek time or accessing time. Their comes a point when it will take longer to find the information on the HDD than it will to process it. so again is it worth it. A YB processor “MAY” be able to get through 1TB of data in say 3 seconds (these are only examples before you start), but it will take the HDD much longer to get all that information, then it has to travel through the motherboard etc.etc.

    If you look to the Sci-Fi side of things, i.e crystal based computers, although this is a possibility (and I belive that some boffins have even managed to store some info on a Crystal already) you are still limited by the rest of the computer.

    The next step seems to be fiber optic, but even this has a limit of around 50 giga bits over a fairly short distance.

    In short, RAM, HDD and processor speeds will still increase, slowley, but unless some radical new technology is developed, we are reaching the maximum of stand alone computing power. It’s now just a question of how much they can squeeze out of what we already have, or how many CPU cores they can weld together and still be viable when using the rest of the computer.

  46. Can anyone say– Holodeck!– Where all the Green bitches at!

  47. After a Yottabyte is a Vertabyte. Not sure what after that.

  48. For all of you (“call me a nerd but,..). Nerd, Maybe, Mathematician, No. I won’t point out each and every error but if you could even do a simple formula on Excel you could find them.
    So far as a THz Processor goes we are more likely headed for 10-30 Ghz (maybe no more than 5) Processors but with an ever increasing number of processors per CPU so what you really would want would be something like 10-30 GHz / 1 KiloCore CPU This would be 1024 10-30 GHz Processors on 1 CPU, Kinda makes Quad Core sound pretty lame. this might sound like SciFi but what would 4 3Ghz Processors on one CPU have sounded have sounded like 20 years ago.
    I’ve heard “we are reaching the limits” so many times in the last 20 years but the increases keep comming.
    Remember, We think the First Mac’s and PC’s were model T’s and the latest units are like Konningsegs. In reality. the First Mac’s and PC’s were model T’s and the latest units are like Model A’s and like the people who bought model A’s, We can only guess what might be comming

    Just a note:”Bill Gates and his Evil Microsoft Empire” don’t make processors, That would be the “Evil Intel and AMD Empires”

  49. the biggest size with a name in the world is a Pijabyte

  50. i’m pretty sure 4 people said this exact same thing “101 n00bs after yottabytes there are Brontobytes and then Geopbytes.” …

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